- improved techniques for the characterization of wastewaters
- improved fundamental understanding of many of the existing unit operations and processes used for wastewater treatment, especially those processes used for the biological removal of nutrients
- greater implementation of several newer treatment technologies (e.g., UV disinfection, membrane filtration, and heat drying)
- greater concern for the long term health and environmental impacts of wastewater constituents; greater emphasis on advanced wastewater treatment and risk assessment for water reuse applications
- changes in regulations and the development of new technologies for wastewater disinfection
- and new regulations governing the treatment, reuse, and disposal of sludge (biosolids).
Greater concern for infrastructure renewal including upgrading the design and performance of wastewater treatment plants. This revision contains a strong focus on advanced wastewater treatment technologies and stresses the reuse aspects of wastewater and biosolids.